### What is the
Factoring Problem?

Factoring is the act of splitting an
integer into a set of smaller integers (factors) which, when
multiplied together, form the original integer. For example,
the factors of 15 are 3 and 5; the factoring problem is to
find 3 and 5 when given 15. Prime factorization requires
splitting an integer into factors that are prime numbers;
every integer has a unique prime factorization. Multiplying
two prime integers together is easy, but as far as we know,
factoring the product is much more difficult.